Nubian goats: breed description, care and maintenance
Many who decide to breed goats and at the same time have no experience, are faced with the problem of choosing a breed. To get the maximum result, you need to choose the meat and dairy direction, which today is diverse. The article will help to get acquainted with a fairly new breed for our country - the Nubian, to learn what its advantages are and what conditions of keeping should be adhered to.
It is believed that the Nubian breed is the oldest of the domesticated. The name comes from the desert in Sudan, where these goats lived 9.5 thousand years ago. The first information about the breed was provided by French scientists of the Middle Ages. The modern breed was obtained thanks to breeders of Great Britain; the goats of the Anglo-Nubian breed became the result of research.
Description and characteristics of the breed
The breed is endowed with certain external differences, productive qualities that distinguish it from others. About this in more detail.
Nubian goats have a rather original appearance, which is how they differ from most other goats in this direction. They are powerful, but at the same time they look very graceful. The height at the withers ranges from 82 - 76 cm. Goats are slightly higher than goats. The weight of males reaches the level of 115 kg, and females weigh on average about 80.
|Body||Long and thin|
|Neck||Thin and long|
|Ears||Wide and long, hanging on the sides|
|Legs||Long and thin|
|Wool||Short and smooth|
|Color||Solid or spotted (brown, black, white)|
Nubian goats are universal, so the level of productivity (both in the dairy direction and in meat) is good.
Nubian goat milk has a delicate creamy taste, as the percentage of fat is at level 7. Due to this, this product is most suitable for the formation of cheese and cottage cheese. After 1 lambing, one goat gives up to 3 liters of milk per day (on average). After each subsequent appearance of the offspring, the milk yield increases to 6 liters.
A similar amount of milk can only be milked if proper feeding is observed. The lactation period lasts approximately 10 months, which means that good milk yields will remain during this period. Knowing how much milk a goat of this breed gives, many are interested in what other productive qualities they are endowed with.
Important! Milk immediately after milking necessary cool. Only in this case it will not lose useful qualities and will be able to be in the refrigerator without losing qualities.
Despite the fact that we rarely grow goats to get meat, the yield of meat is quite large. The product itself is endowed with a pleasant and fairly gentle taste, there is no strong smell that is inherent in these animals. More often than not, young kids are slaughtered for meat products.
Advantages and disadvantages
Nubian goats due to their uniqueness belong to the meat and dairy direction. Due to their appearance, they can become a decoration of the yard.
- Advantages of the breed:
- milk has a multifunctional purpose, but most often it is used to create cheese;
- milk is endowed with a pleasant taste, odorless, which is sometimes inherent in dairy products from goats;
- the first milk appears immediately after the appearance of the first offspring;
- in 1 day, milk yield reaches 3 liters;
- fat content of milk is within 5%;
- tender meat, considered a delicacy, without any unpleasant odors;
- weight gaining fast enough;
- offspring appears twice a year.
- The disadvantages of the breed:
- goats are often the victims of an attack by bloodsucking insects, therefore they use vaccination at an early age;
- cannot live in captivity; she needs a lot of space where she can walk;
- cannot be kept nearby with other species;
- for inexperienced breeders, care and feeding can be a problem.
How to choose good individuals
Goat breeding begins with the acquisition of young animals. At the same time, it is important to know by what signs you need to select them so that only pure-bred individuals are present in your herd. These include the following:
- Roman face;
- ears are hanging and wide.
Did you know? Distinctive quality «nubiek» is that the taste and quality of milk is independent of the diet.
In addition, the following rules should be followed:
- The kid must be mobile, have a beautiful shiny coat. In addition, they try mother’s milk, its density should be good, without any extraneous flavors.
- It is recommended to choose kids that were born at the end of winter. It is believed that they are the most developed and viable.
- It is better to get young in proven places with a good reputation and documents that confirm the health of animals.
Features of breeding and care
For a full life goats need certain conditions and diets. About it further.
Conditions of detention
Some believe that the Nubian breed is an elite, therefore, requires a certain content. For goats they build a spacious room with high rates of heat, comfort, cleanliness and light throughout the entire time. The size of the premises is calculated as follows: for 1 goat it is required to allocate an area of 1 - 2 m2 (depending on age). The height of the ceilings is about 2.5 m. The presence of a good ventilation system is important.
Important! Cleaning is carried out every 3 days. If necessary, it can be done more often, as the animals are so picky that they categorically refuse to sit in the mud or eat out of a tattered trough.
However, this should not be drafts, otherwise the animals will be constantly sick. For recreation, they build sunbeds, which need to be abundantly covered with straw. They are built on a small elevation, thus providing additional purity.The most comfortable temperature for keeping Nubian goats is in the range 13-21 ° С. As practice shows, the lower one does not negatively affect milk yield and the condition of the animals, but the high one immediately leads to negative consequences (decreased appetite and amount of milk). So these animals do not need warmth in winter as much as coolness in summer heat. Light (namely: Vitamin D) is also important for the full life of goats. The correct number of windows in the barn will help to ventilate the room during the warmer months.
Did you know? In 1906, at the World Congress in Paris, goat milk was recognized as the best substitute for human milk.
What and how to feed
For full growth and a good level of animal productivity, you need to feed well - only in this case the indicators will be at the right level. What should be the correct diet for feeding adults and young animals?
Each farmer determines the feeding regimen independently. It is important to remember that disruption in the schedule leads to a decrease in productivity. Milking goats are recommended to be fed at least 3 times a day. It is important that clear water be available at all times.
To get good milk yield and weight gain, goats are given food by the hour (it is important to follow the diet). Stimulation of the appearance / increase of milk is carried out by adding steamed barley to the feed.In summer, the basis is mostly meadow grasses, in the evening in the stalls add a small amount of hay, oats or vegetables. In the cold season, the diet is more complex and consists of the following components:
- hay - 4 kg;
- grain concentrates - 2 kg;
- vegetables, root crops and young branches - 3 kg.
Kids are born without natural immunity. The first mother’s milk not only fills this shortage, but also activates the digestive system. Therefore, it must be given as soon as possible after birth so that harmful microorganisms do not have time to enter the body. The goat is milked by hand and fed the babies for 15 minutes after birth.
Dishes should be washed thoroughly after each use. The first two weeks of babies are fed at least 5 times a day. Milk is heated to a temperature of 38ºС. Then add water to the diet. If there is a problem with breast milk, from 4 days you can give babies a substitute.Only high quality formulations designed for lambs and calves are recommended. Additionally, if the kids are 7 days old, hay and grain are added to the diet. You can wean from milk when the kid starts to consume at least 100 g of grain per day.
After 5 months, the babies are transferred to the diet of an adult herd. At least 250 g of grain and hay should be given per day to get the desired growth rate. In addition, from 3 weeks they are fed with salt, bone meal and chalk (this is done to strengthen the skeletal system and regulate the process of calcium absorption). The amount of additives should not exceed 10 g per day. Upon reaching young 3-month age, the dosage is increased by 2 times.
Basic rules of drinking
Goat watering should be fixed to a specific regime. With grazing, this should be done 3 times a day, with a stall 2 times enough.
Prospects for breeding in Russia
Today, goat breeding is only developing, while Nubian goats are already on the farms of several enthusiasts. This is due to the fact that to obtain the same result as other breeds, the content of these is too troublesome. So if the growth of the livestock will be, then it will be quite slow (while there are other breeds that show no less productivity indicators).Nevertheless, the breeding of the Nubian breed is quite profitable, since as a result the farmer receives a large amount of tasty and, most importantly, healthy milk, which can be processed to obtain other products, plus meat of good quality. When deciding to breed Nubian goats, it should be remembered that all this is possible only if the animals are provided with high-quality food and good care.