Moscow black breed of chickens: characteristics and description, features of the content
If you are looking for a versatile species of poultry that can actively lay eggs and give top-notch meat, then you definitely should get Moscow black chickens. When creating this breed, breeders managed to combine these two qualities, making it today and popular among the owners of personal plots.
In 1980, breeders bred a new hybrid - Moscow black breed. She acquired her name according to the place of removal, Moscow State Farm Solnechnoe.
Did you know? Hens from 10 meters can recognize the owner among other people.
Specialists created it on the basis of the following types:
- New Hampshire;
- brown leggorn;
- yurlovsky vocal.
Long work on crossbreeding yielded results, and the resulting look has:
- high productivity;
- strong immunity;
- early ability to lay eggs.
Between themselves, Moscow black hens are divided into five subspecies. Now the work of breeders on the species has not been stopped, because it has one significant drawback: the line degenerates too quickly.
It is easy to identify Moscow black hens by the characteristic features of their appearance:
|Head||wider than average|
|Beak||curved, dark shade|
|Paws||medium size, usually wide apart|
|Plumage and color||dense plumage of black color with golden spots on the neck|
Roosters have a brighter color, their shoulders, mane and lower back are cast in golden.
The nature of these birds is friendly, calm. Separately, it is worth emphasizing the high stress resistance of the species, and this is important for laying hens.
Pros and cons of the breed
- Moscow black chickens are chosen due to their advantages:
- friendly disposition;
- stress resistance;
- good health;
- unpretentiousness in the diet and conditions of detention;
- very tasty meat;
- high egg production;
- excellent adaptive abilities.
- However, the breed has certain disadvantages:
- almost no instinct to hatch;
- late puberty;
- predisposition to obesity.
Growing Moscow black breed at home
Based on the characteristics of this species, there are a number of maintenance rules that ensure that birds are carried better and their meat quality is improved.
Did you know? Chickens are well-oriented in time, therefore, if scheduled feeding in the yard is established, then, at the right time, the birds will always be in place.
Conditions of detention
This breed is contained both in enclosed spaces and in the walking yard. And each of the options has its own requirements.
It is important for chickens to ensure optimal temperature and humidity in the house. The room should be at least +16 ºС, if older birds live there, and at least +21 ºС, when it comes to chickens. If the room is too cold, then the laying hens cease to lay eggs. When overheating occurs indoors (at temperatures above +35 ... + 40 ºС), then the birds can even die. A too hot indoor environment may also be indicated by a thin shell or a reduced egg size.
Important! Lack of moisture disrupts the functioning of the respiratory system, mucous membranes and leaves a negative imprint on the plumage.
If the microclimate is normal, then this is noticeable in the behavior of the birds themselves: they run, cluck.In this mood, hens actively eat, drink, walk, do not pile up and do not stray into flocks. Humidity is also a significant indicator; it should not be lowered below 60–70%. To ensure it, take care of the ventilation in the chicken coop. Excessive moisture creates conditions for mold on the walls and dampness.Another important factor in the arrangement of the house is the litter. Her presence is required, but the composition differs depending on the season. In summer, it is better to fill the floor with sand: birds like to flutter there, doing plumage cleaning to prevent parasites. A layer of 15–20 cm will be sufficient. In cold periods, various materials are used as litter:
- fallen leaves;
- ground hay;
- husk from seeds, etc.
Such a coating perfectly absorbs moisture from droppings, and also retains heat during cold weather. Moscow black hens are quite hardy, so such a “warm-up” is quite enough for them in winter. The thickness of the layer in the cold season should be up to 0.5 m. For such purposes, it is necessary to procure materials in the summer, when it is possible to dry them qualitatively. It is recommended to carry out harvesting at the rate of 10-15 kg of litter per 1 bird per season.
Did you know? Roosters are genetically predisposed to fights. This explains their arrogance and willingness to engage in battle with an enemy that is much larger in size.
In winter, you need to take care of the presence of lighting in the chicken coop. Since daylight hours during this period are much shorter than usual, it is necessary to extend it piece by piece so that this does not affect negatively the laying hens. To place bulbs for this it is necessary not less than 2 meters at the rate of 1 lamp per 6 m².For Moscow black breed chickens, it is better to purchase or make a brooder yourself, given the minimum craving of these chickens for motherhood. Caring for young animals will fall entirely on the shoulders of the owners, however, the need for custody usually does not last long. Since these birds are famous for their health, it will be enough 1–1.5 months in the brooder so that the chickens get stronger.
Its presence is optional, but desirable for birds of this species. Moscow black hens are famous for their calm nature, they are not fearful, so you can do without high barriers in the walking yard. For the comfort of chickens, make a canopy over the clearing to protect them from heat and excessive sunlight.
Important! Be sure to make sure that there are no sharp or prickly places in the courtyard that the bird could hurt.
Feeding troughs and drinking bowls
Drinking bowls and feeders should always be in the chicken coop and in the courtyard for walking, if any, so that chickens can always replenish their strength. When choosing a feeder, follow these recommendations:
- it should be an elongated container made of wood or metal;
- at least 10 cm of the length of the feeder should be planned for one bird, otherwise someone will be malnourished, and someone will suffer from overeating;
- set them on a platform so that birds can get food, but do not rake it on the ground.
Did you know? In Central Asia, there are often “bald” hens, which were bred specifically for existence in a hot climate.
A varied and timely feeding is the key to the healthy development of Moscow black chickens. Therefore, their diet should be discussed in more detail.
Particularly noteworthy is the feeding of chickens, since immunity is laid from birth. To ensure healthy livestock development, follow the step-by-step instructions:
- The first week of the chicks should be fed with finely ground corn grits and finely chopped boiled egg.
- On the third day of life of young animals, it is worth adding mixed feed for chickens and green onions to the diet.
- From the second week you can already give cottage cheese.
- Boiled vegetables are added to the diet of chicks only from the third week of life.
- After this, you can gradually give the chickens crushed grain.
Important! This species is prone to fullness, so it is better to prevent their overeating.
Given that Moscow hens belong to meat and egg breeds, they require an average of 15–20% more nutrition than in the case of other species. The basis of their diet is feed and hay flour. But in the summer, the second ingredient is usually replaced by:
- fresh vegetables;
Herd replacement planned
Sexual maturity in birds of this breed occurs after 8 months of life, after which their eggs can already be taken for incubators. Independently hatch eggs, this species is taken infrequently, therefore they are propagated mainly by artificial means. Hens are carried most actively until the age of 3-4 years, after which their egg production decreases, and the quality of the meat begins to deteriorate. Therefore, it is during this period that a planned replacement of the livestock is recommended.
Did you know? The longest chicken flight lasted 13 seconds.
Like representatives of other breeds, Moscow black hens molt in the fall. This process takes up to three months for them, so by winter the birds have completely updated plumage.At this time, hens become more sluggish, laying hens almost cease to trot, directing all the body's forces to restore the feather cover. Owners can add strength to their pets and speed up molting by supplementing their diet with nutritional supplements:
Traditionally, Moscow black hens are credited with good health. This species does not have specific diseases, but diseases that are common among chickens are rarely affected. But if trouble happened, then the owners should know how to provide first aid to pets:
- with pullorosis (typhoid) first, the diseased individual is isolated, then for 3-5 days they are given tetracycline at the rate of 25 g per 1 kg of weight once a day. You can also use sulfa drugs - 0.5 g per 1 bird per day;
- paratyphoid or salmonellosis also requires isolation of the diseased bird to prevent the spread of infection. Chickens are treated with furazolidone (1 tablet diluted in 3 l of water and given for 20 days) and streptomycin (according to the instructions 2 times a day for 10 days);
- with coccidiosis fight with a number of drugs. Most often, amprolium is used, taking ¼ of the drug per 1 kg of feed for 5–7 days. Replace it with zoalen at the rate of 37 mg per 1 liter of water for the same period. If you need to urgently rescue a bird, then you can use bikoks for 2 days, diluting 0.01 liters per 1 liter of liquid;
- ornithosis (psittacosis) can be treated only in the early stages. To save the bird, tetracycline (0.4 g per 1 kg of weight) is promptly used for 10-14 days. If it is not, then erythromycin is suitable in the same dosage for 14 days with a 2-time intake of the drug per day. In addition, they do intramuscular injections throughout the week.
Important! Perhaps the most dangerous chicken disease is called plague - it is not treated. Infected specimens are slaughtered and burned to prevent infection of the entire livestock.
The Moscow black chickens will be to the liking of the owner of any farmstead, because, despite the underdeveloped instinct of incubation, they rush perfectly, and their meat has a great taste.