Rhinitis in rabbits: causes, symptoms and treatment
Infectious rhinitis, or a runny nose, is widely found in most mammals, including among all kinds of domestic rabbit breeds. This disease often does not cause serious consequences, but it certainly leads to serious side effects. Today, there are a huge number of various methods for eliminating pathology on the network, but not all of them are safe for small domestic animals. We will talk in detail about the main causes of rhinitis, and also consider how to effectively and safely eliminate it.
Symptoms of the disease
Rhinitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa. A variety of various factors can cause pathology, but the most common among them is damage to the rabbit's body by pathogenic viruses or bacteria. In this case, the disease is invasive in nature, therefore it is often called infectious rhinitis.
Even a novice farmer can identify an ailment, as its symptoms are distinct and understandable to everyone.A sick rabbit often sneezes, which is often accompanied by a severe runny nose, however, in addition, sick animals also often observe:
- secretion of mucus from the nose, at first it is transparent, but then it becomes cloudy or yellowish;
- a clogged nose;
- increase in body temperature;
- loss of appetite;
- inhibition of general condition and decreased activity;
- characteristic purulent-mucous masses around the nose and surrounding areas;
- a sharp decrease in body weight (with a prolonged course of the disease).
Important! Infectious rhinitis is most often observed in spring or autumn, therefore, during this period, additional attention should be given to animals.
Causes of Rhinitis
Rhinitis in rabbits can be triggered by several factors at once, among them biotic and abiotic can be noted. But quite often, many farmers neglect this, as a result of which rabbits receive a powerful portion of all kinds of medicines.
This not only has a detrimental effect on the health of animals, but also leads to aggravation of the disease, therefore, every lover of furry animals must be able to identify the nature of rhinitis in his wards.
Domestic rabbits, like other representatives of the lagomorphs, feed exclusively on grassy vegetation; however, on a farm, it is not always possible to provide animals with fresh grass.Therefore, many feed their wards with all kinds of mixtures from field or meadow forbs. By itself, this product is quite dusty, even in the case of industrial production.
Dust particles are a powerful irritant, therefore, getting on the nasal mucosa can cause severe tissue irritation. This leads to inflammation of the nasal mucosa, which provokes the appearance of the first manifestations of rhinitis.
Even if such feed is not used on the farm, it is almost impossible to protect animals from hay. It is one of the best and most common litter for fur animals.
The common cold is a classic cause of rhinitis. Many factors can cause it, but the most common among them can be called non-compliance with the general rules for keeping rabbits.
Poor and unbalanced nutrition, as well as frequent or severe hypothermia cause a decrease in the overall protective functions of the body, which often leads to inflammatory processes of the respiratory system, including in the nasal cavity.
In this case, rhinitis is not accompanied by an infectious lesion, therefore, it passes not only quickly, but also without serious consequences for the rabbit body.
Sometimes inflammation of the mucous membrane can be the result of trauma to the head or region of the animal's nasopharynx. The reason for this can be many factors, but quite often injuries arise as a result of an overflowing rabbitry or an uncomfortable cell construction for animals.
In this case, the main signs of rhinitis can be accompanied by both swelling of the nasopharynx and a clear violation of the integrity of the skin in the area of the nose.
Infectious damage to the body is one of the most common causes of rhinitis. It is caused by a variety of pathogenic microorganisms. Often they are transmitted by airborne droplets, but often spread with infected body fluids of animals, food or bedding.
Important! Infectious rhinitis is successfully transmitted between various species of domestic animals. Therefore, if an outbreak is observed in your household, rabbits should be protected from any sick animals.
Parasitizing in the tissues of the nasopharynx and adjacent parts of the body, they cause complex inflammatory processes, often with untimely treatment, adversely affect the health of fur animals.
There can be many reasons for the development of such a pathology, but most often it is a consequence of the seasonal spread of all kinds of infections, as well as depressed immunity.
How the disease develops and proceeds
After the pathogen enters the body, the infection develops instantly. In just 2-5 days, it rapidly spreads throughout the body and causes all kinds of pathological changes. However, the first symptoms of rhinitis can be discerned no earlier than 5-7 days, and in some cases it will take about 10 days.
The disease can develop in different ways. Sometimes the body of rabbits manages to overcome the infection on their own, in which case the disease goes away on its own, without human intervention.
But almost always rabbits require drug therapy, otherwise a runny nose can go into further damage to the respiratory system, including the bronchi. With untimely treatment, such a pathology almost always leads to the death of rabbits.
One of the most dangerous ways of developing an ailment can be chronic rhinitis. It is the result of neglect of treatment or serious errors in the treatment of the common cold. In this case, it is almost impossible to predict the consequences and pathology of the pathology.
Did you know? About 20% of all rabbits are natural carriers of infectious rhinitis pathogens. These primarily include bacteria P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica. With the normal functioning of the body, their number in the body of domestic rabbits is regulated by immunity, but during a decrease in protective forces, microorganisms massively affect the body of animals.
The disease can either fall into a long remission, or after some time lead to the death of an infected rabbit.
Treatment of rhinitis at home
To overcome infectious rhinitis at home is not difficult.
Today, there are a huge number of methods to combat the disease, however, only a qualified medical professional can skillfully determine how to properly treat sick animals in each specific case and which medicinal methods will be most appropriate, so before treating domestic animals, you can’t do without consulting a veterinarian.
Special attention should be paid to cases when a runny nose is observed in a pregnant rabbit.In such situations, rhinitis becomes a rather dangerous pathology that can threaten both the life of the expectant mother and her offspring, so the sick rabbit must be carefully monitored by a veterinarian.
After the birth of newborns, rabbits must be weaned and transferred to artificial feeding. Otherwise, they can not only get sick, but for life become carriers of a contagious infection.
Modern medicines are one of the most effective treatments for the common cold in fur animals. For this, in veterinary practice they use complex antibiotics that have a powerful effect on many pathogenic microorganisms.
In just a few days, such therapy can instantly improve the state of health and protect animals from its consequences.
Among effective antibiotics, the following injection drugs are considered the most popular among veterinarians:
- Baytril 5% - synthetic antibiotic for intramuscular administration. The maximum daily dose of Baytril for adults is 5 mg, for young animals - no more than 1-2 mg. The general course of treatment with the drug is 5 days;
- Maxidine 0.4 - An antibiotic agent with a wide spectrum of effects, used for intramuscular administration. Apply the drug 2 times a day, morning and evening, until the symptoms of the common cold are completely eliminated. A single dose for young animals is 0.5 ml, for adults - not more than 1 ml;
- Marbocil - a complex antibiotic of artificial origin. It is administered intramuscularly or intravenously in the form of a 10% solution of 0.02 mg / kg animal weight. The duration of therapy is determined by the veterinarian individually for each individual case;
- Ribotan - A powerful immunomodulating agent for subcutaneous or intramuscular administration. The maximum daily injection dose for young animals is 0.5–1 ml / day, for adults - about 1-2 ml. Use the drug for 3-5 days. To consolidate the result, after 5-7 days, the therapy is repeated;
- Ceftriaxone - a broad-spectrum antibiotic. The drug is used both for intramuscular injection, and for subcutaneous. Apply it 2 times a day for 2 days at the rate of 40 mg / kg.
Did you know? Despite the prevailing opinion, rabbits do not belong to rodents. These animals are representatives of a separate genus of mammals from the Hare family.
Nasal instillation preparations
With a mild course, instillation of Furacilin or Penicillin in the nose will help to cope with the pathology. They are complex antibiotic drugs used to combat a number of infectious lesions.Their main advantage is an affordable price multiplied by high efficiency. Apply such funds 2-3 times a day for 12 days. 5–7 drops are injected into each nostril using a pipette. If necessary, Furacilin and Penicillin can be replaced with any other antibiotic from a related group.
Alternative methods of treatment - inhalation
Alternative methods are not inferior in effectiveness to traditional medicines, while they have significant advantages over medical preparations. Such therapy is based solely on natural components, so it can be effectively used without fear of consequences for the body, including during pregnancy.
The most effective procedure among them is inhalation using a variety of extracts of medicinal plants.
They have a complex effect on the body of rabbits. In addition to saturating the body with all kinds of useful substances, the procedure makes it possible to warm the whole body, which instantly reduces swelling in the nasopharynx and removes accumulated purulent discharge.
The most useful for rabbits are considered inhalations based on essential oils and all kinds of extracts (decoctions and infusions):
- Essential oils are bred exclusively in hot water. Such liquids should not be excessively concentrated, so no more than 1 drop of essential oil should be added to 1 liter of hot water.
- To make an infusion, 1 tablespoon of raw material is poured into any kitchen container and pour 200 ml of boiling water, then cover and cover with a towel. After cooling, the liquid is filtered and heated to boiling before use.
- If you have to make a decoction, you need 1 tablespoon of dry raw materials to fill with warm water (200-300 ml), and then insist the mixture in a water bath for 30 minutes. After this, the infusion is filtered, and then used directly for the procedure or cooled and stored in the refrigerator.
Important! Decoctions and infusions are stored at a temperature of 0 to +5 ° C for no more than a day. Otherwise, inhalation will not give the desired result.
Stages of inhalation:
- Transplant the sick rabbit into a small separate cage and, for greater comfort, put some hay inside and set the drinker. The most convenient for this will be a special carrying for small animals.
- Place a pot of hot medicinal solution next to the cage.
- Wrap the cage with the rabbit and the dish with the solution with a towel or other dense cloth, while always leaving a small hole for the influx of fresh air.
- After 10-15 minutes, inhalation is stopped. Such a procedure is carried out 1-2 times a day for no more than 7 days.
One of the most characteristic complications of a simple cold can be the accumulation of mucopurulent mass in the paranasal sinuses. In most cases, such a pathology is not amenable to medical treatment, since purulent masses often differ in a rather thick consistency that is not amenable to dissolution or liquefaction.
In this case, the treatment of the common cold will necessarily require surgical intervention, otherwise the disease can cause inflammation of the brain and death.
Diet feeding sick rabbits
During an infectious disease of sick rabbits, it is necessary to transfer to the appropriate feeding regimen. Rhinitis often takes away all the forces from rabbits, which inevitably leads to a decrease not only in activity, but also in appetite.
Therefore, so that a sick animal does not refuse food at all, it should be protected from heavy food during the period of illness. To do this, remove all kinds of complex concentrates and nutritional supplements from his diet.
Otherwise, there are no restrictions on feeding rabbits with rhinitis. However, most veterinarians recommend diversifying the food of sick animals with all kinds of vegetables and medicinal herbs from chamomile, mint, basil or dill, slightly wilted naturally.
Such a diet favorably affects immunity, which reduces the duration of a cold at times. In addition, the replacement of drinking water with warm infusions or decoctions (1 tablespoon per liter of water) of chamomile, mint, eucalyptus, thyme or sage will also help to increase the immunity of rabbits.
Additional care during illness
To accelerate the recovery of sick living creatures, she must be provided with appropriate care. During the illness, sick rabbits are often transferred to a warmer and more secluded place. The farmer’s home becomes the most acceptable option for this.
Only in it can animals create not only a stable temperature regime, but also provide constant attention.
Also, rabbits should be protected from all kinds of stresses, so they need to be moved to a separate room away from noise and other stress factors. Since the common cold provides serious dehydration, sick animals should definitely provide unlimited access to fresh and clean water.
But cold water is forbidden to rabbits, so it must be preheated beforehand to +30 ° C, otherwise drinking with cold water can not only extend the treatment, but also cause serious complications.
To prevent the development of a dangerous infectious disease is the main task of any rabbit breeder. Neglect of this rule is detrimental not only to animals, but also leads to serious losses.To avoid the spread of rhinitis, you must:
- periodically inspect rabbits;
- adhere to the general rules of hygiene of keeping pets;
- maintain an optimal microclimate in rabbitry and rabbit housing conditions;
- monitor the quality of feed and water when keeping animals;
- to balance rabbits not only the daily regimen, but also the diet;
- conduct periodic vaccination of domestic animals;
- Do not forget about the periodic disinfection of cages and rooms that contain rabbits.
Did you know? In Australia, rabbits are considered a national disaster. After the introduction by the first colonists in 1856, the animal massively settled on the territory of the continent, which led to the crowding out and death of many local species.
Is it possible to eat meat of rabbits with rhinitis
Today, there is no reliable information that rhinitis negatively affects the quality of rabbit meat, so the product can be consumed without any precautions. In addition, the infections that cause this ailment in rabbits are absolutely not dangerous for humans, which is confirmed by many clinical studies around the world.
The only exception is the meat of individuals that have undergone active antibiotic therapy. In this case, it takes from several weeks to two months for harmful derivatives of antibiotics to be safely removed from the body of animals.Also, do not forget that with untimely treatment, rhinitis can lead to pathologies of the bronchi and cause the death of rabbits. In this case, rabbit meat is not used for food.
Rhinitis is a rather dangerous disease that in just a few days can completely affect the entire population of rabbits, therefore, at the first signs of an ailment, animals are necessarily subjected to traditional or folk methods of treatment.
Despite the fact that the meat of sick rabbits is not dangerous for humans, such a product should be enjoyed with care, especially if the rabbits were treated with antibiotics.