How many liters of milk does a cow give per day?
Such an animal as a cow, even children know. But many questions regarding milk production remain a mystery to some. In this article, we will talk about the process of obtaining a dairy product and how to increase its quantity.
When cow begins to receive milk
To obtain cow's milk, the hen needs to reach puberty, become pregnant, and become pregnant. The animal's body begins to produce milk for feeding offspring, so it appears after the first calving.
From what age
The most suitable age for mating is 1.5–2 years. It is not advisable to do this very early, but it is also not recommended to delay it, so that productivity does not decrease. In the first days after the appearance of the baby, the cow gives colostrum - this is a very valuable and useful product for calves.
Therefore, from the first days it is necessary to let the cub to the mother, it will be useful for him and for the massage of the cow's udder so that mastitis does not develop. If you do not immediately let the calf into the cow, then it may not allow milkmaid to come to you.The cow begins to give usable milk only 5–7 days after calving. The product obtained before, if his calf does not drink everything, you can feed other animals.
How is milk formed?
From the foregoing, it is clear that the non-giving birth cow will not have milk, it will begin to be produced after the appearance of the calf. Let's see how this happens.
A useful product appears from the mammary gland (udder) by taking the necessary substances from the blood and converting them into the necessary components of milk. From this it turns out that these two liquids are interconnected, but differ in composition.
Compared to blood, milk contains:
- 90 times more sugar;
- 14 times more calcium;
- it is 20 times richer in fats.
To get 1 liter of a valuable product, up to 500 liters of blood must pass through the udder. The whole body is involved in this process. Enzymes of the rumen (pancreas) produce acetic acid from food, which is necessary for the formation of fat in milk.
Important! If the udder is overfilled with milk, then its production stops, and the nutrients begin to dissolve. This reduces milk yield. That is why it is very important to observe the milking regimen. If breaks exceed 12 hours, then this can cause inflammation, swelling of the udder and other painful processes.
In some alveoli of the glandular tissue of the udder, fat is produced that enters the milk fluid through the channels.
Does a cow give milk without a calf
Lactation lasts up to 7 months after calving. The greatest amount of nutrient fluid from the animal can be obtained on the 2nd – 4th month after the start of milking.
Lactation consists of 3 periods:
- the vomiting lasts from 10 to 50 days. At this time, prolactin is being intensively produced. This hormone is formed during stimulation of the nipples, and the more it is, the more milk. Therefore, these days it is important not only to milk the animal well and regularly, but also to let the cubs to it to improve the milking;
- the main period for receiving milk;
- 2 months before the next calving, the start period begins, when the animal must rest and gain strength. At this time, the cow does not milk.
Sometimes, with problems with insemination, the period for receiving milk can last up to 2 years, but milk production at this time is not high. If insemination does not occur, then the cow becomes ash. This means that she stops producing milk. From this it follows that for the burenka to milk, she needs to give birth to calves regularly.
How old is the cow giving milk
Cows live from 10 to 15 years. During this period, they can produce offspring up to 10 times. At the age of about 15 years, the burenka ceases to become pregnant, and, therefore, milks.Most of the milk can be obtained from the animal at the age of six, after which the decrease in milk production begins.
The average daily and annual milk yield of cows
To navigate in how much you can get a dairy product, consider the indicators of different breeds.
About a good 5–6,000 liters of milk can be obtained from a good cows per year. On average, up to 15 liters are obtained per day. Breeders with experience claim that up to 20 liters can be milked from an ordinary cow per day. However, this is a controversial statement, since milk yield depends on many factors.
An ordinary first-calf per day gives from 7 to 15 liters, and for a record-holder - up to 25 liters. With age, the number of dairy products increases.
Did you know? Very expensive is the meat of Japanese Wagiu cows, which is called marble. These animals were treated royally: fed with the best feed, rubbed sake every day and watered with beer.
Scientists have developed a method for determining milk production, which is based on the physical characteristics of the blood. From 3 months old, blood samples are taken from the heifers and the level of its viscosity is determined. Animals with a higher viscosity are highly productive, and those with a lower rate are considered low-productive.
Milking of some breeds
The most common animals of these breeds:
- Simmental cow belongs to universal breeds. She has high milk yield and high quality meat. From 5,000 to 9,000 liters of dairy product can be obtained from such an animal per year;
- the most common breed of American selection worldwide is Holstein. Its productivity is 6500–7000 liters per year. This is a dairy breed, which when crossed with black-motley representatives increases milk yield by 200 liters. Her record daily milk yield - 110 liters of milk per day;
- The popularity of Black-motley cows is explained by high milk production and meat quality. Their annual milk yield is 5500-6000 liters. The milk fat is low - about 3.5%;
- The Yaroslavl breed has good milk characteristics (5,000 liters per year) and fat content of up to 4%. The record for this burenka is 82 liters per day.
What determines the amount of milk
The productivity of the cows depends on many factors:
- primarily from the breed (meat, dairy or meat and dairy);
- from proper nutrition and diet;
- from the time of year;
- from skillful milking;
- from following the milking schedule;
- maintaining the health of the animal, etc.
To get enough dairy products, you need to purchase an animal of dairy or meat-dairy breed, since you will not get so much milk from meat breed. You can determine the type by appearance, namely by the length of the tail:
- if the animal has a long (almost to the ground) tail, then it is a dairy breed;
- individuals with meat breed have a short (to the knee) tail;
- the universal (meat-and-milk) representative is indicated by a tail of medium length.
Important! When reducing the amount of milk less than 10 liters per day, you need to pay attention to the health of the cow. Many diseases of the udder lead to a decrease in milk production and even to their complete cessation.
Time after first calving
In order for the aunt to give enough milk, after the first calving, she needs to pay enough attention, and also observe some rules:
- you need to immediately let the calf in to mom. He is better than any milkmaid udder udder. In the future, he must be allowed to the cow during the morning and evening milking;
- compliance with the milking schedule (at certain times and at regular intervals) increases the amount of dairy products by 10%;
- it is necessary to give warm water and succulent feed in sufficient quantities;
- heifers often have edema, to avoid this, milking should be combined with massage of the udder. With very strong edema, you need to reduce the amount of water and succulent feed.
In many ways, the season affects the milk yield:
- in the summer, when there is enough succulent food, sunlight and walks, the milk yield is slightly higher than in cold weather;
- in winter, the amount of dairy products decreases. Animals spend part of the energy to maintain body temperature, there is a lack of walking, sunlight and succulent food. The owner of the cow needs to provide a warm barn and bedding, proper nutrition and drink, and, if possible, take the animal for walks.
A tasty product in sufficient quantities will be given by a cow only with a good and varied diet. Feed should be given several times a day in sufficient quantities. Nutrition should be such as to ensure the intake of all necessary substances.
The more varied, nutritious and juicier the feed will be, the better the quality of the milk will be. It is also necessary to provide the right amount of warm water, since cold reduces milk yield.
Cow nutrition should consist of:
- hay, straw and grain;
- compound feed and bran;
- peeling vegetables or vegetables;
- carbohydrate feed (beets, carrots and pumpkins), they increase milk yield and give milk a sweetish taste;
- vitamins and minerals.
Did you know? Cows give not only tasty milk and meat, manure can be drowned. American scientists calculated that the manure of all US cows is capable of producing 100 billion kWh of electricity.
Good nutrition and quality care provide record levels of milk production.
Among the record cows are known such:
- a representative of the Holstein breed (Julian's cow from the USA) in 2004 gave 30 805 liters of dairy product;
- the aforementioned breed was also mentioned in 1994, when the Bel Jar cow gave 27 388 liters of dairy product;
- in 1973 19 106 liters of milk were received from a black-motley cow;
- back in 1941, a representative of the Yaroslavl breed gave more than 8 buckets of milk per day.