EMCAR cattle: symptoms and treatment
Cattle emphysematous carbuncle is a serious disease that requires immediate diagnosis and treatment. Let's see what forms of the disease exist, what therapy to use and how to protect animals from EMKAR.
What is this disease
Emphysematous carbuncle or EMKAR is an acute pathology that affects mainly cattle, less often goats, buffaloes and sheep.
Did you know? Another name for the disease is noisy carbuncle.
The disease is not highly contagious and does not belong to the category of endemic. The characteristic features are swelling (carbuncles) and lameness. The vast majority of animals infected soon die. The disease is spread all over the world, however, vaccination and preventive measures have helped to avoid epidemics - infections are most often recorded as isolated cases.
Initially, the disease was considered a type of anthrax. EMKAR was first described as an independent disease at the end of the 19th century. In 1872, it was described by F. Schaber, in 1875 by Otto von Bollinger, a German doctor and veterinarian, then in 1876 by the scientist Fezer. After separating emphysematous carbuncle as cattle disease from anthrax, other methods began to be used for treatment, in particular, preventive vaccination.
Pathogen and route of infection
The causative agent of the emphysematous carbuncle is Clostridium chauvoei, an anaerobic bacillus of the genus Clodystria, forming a large number of spores. This microorganism is found in the feces of infected animals and, together with them, enters the environment. Another way of spreading is the decomposition of those who died due to the disease of cows and bulls.
Important! Bodies of infected animals must be disposed of after death.
The spores of the pathogen can also infect soil, vegetation, manure, and swamps. In this regard, cattle often become infected in the summer and early autumn with increased dryness and air temperature. Hay made from grass in an infected area can also cause infection. Clostridium chauvoei have a long lifespan (from 6 months in manure and rot to 2-3 years in dry soil) and resistance to low temperatures.Microorganisms can die when exposed to:
- UV radiation (1 day);
- boiling (2 hours);
- autoclave (half an hour);
- formaldehyde solution (15 minutes);
- mercuric chloride solution (10 minutes).
Forms and Symptoms
The incubation period of emphysematous carbuncle is from 1 to 5 days. The first symptoms are noticeable in the early days of the development of the disease. In general, EMCAR has similar symptoms, however, several forms of the disease are distinguished.
For the acute form, the following course is characteristic.
- The temperature rises to 41–42 ° C. In the area of the hips, sternum, neck, and other areas with developed muscle mass, painful, dense and hot carbuncles (edematous swelling) appear in the mouth or throat, which, when palpated, emit a crack.
- The temperature of the carbuncles drops. Lymph nodes increase. With localization, lameness appears on the hips, manifestation in the mouth or throat affects the tongue.
- The animal refuses to feed, becomes lethargic, stops chewing and begins to breathe often.
- The heartbeat becomes more frequent and the work of the cardiovascular system is disrupted.
- The temperature drops below normal. A lethal outcome occurs a few days after infection. Cases of prolonged course of EMKAR are known (up to 10 days).
The super-acute form happens less frequently, has a sharper manifestation and is not amenable to diagnosis. The main features are:
- lack of carbuncles;
- rapid course (up to 12 hours after infection);
- Reaching predominantly calves;
- lack of appetite;
With an atypical form, timely access to a veterinarian leads to recovery. The manifestations of the disease in this case are minimal, among them:
- general depression;
- muscle soreness;
- Duration from 1 to 5 days.
Symptoms of some forms of emphysematous carbuncle may be latent or insufficient to determine an accurate diagnosis. For this reason, several methods are simultaneously used to diagnose the disease.
- The clinical picture. The farmer needs to pay attention to any unusual manifestations and changes in the behavior of the animal.
- Laboratory research. For this type of diagnosis, particles of pus, muscles, and edema are needed. You can examine the material seized a maximum of 3 hours after death.
- Pathological picture. After a fatal outcome, affected cattle are burned without opening, however, with super-acute and atypical forms, this option is suitable for diagnosis.
After the death of the animal, a characteristic pathoanatomical picture is determined. The corpses of affected livestock at autopsy are distinguished by the following changes:
- bloating under the skin and in the abdominal cavity;
- liquid foam from the nasopharynx;
- bloody muscles, dark red in color;
- crepitating edema on the affected muscles, filled with a sacrum;
- traces of hemorrhages on the mucous and serous surfaces;
- enlarged liver with dead areas;
- bloody spleen;
- blood of a dark red color, sintered.
Important! To avoid contamination of the territory, autopsy must be performed only under appropriate conditions!
Treatment and Quarantine
With timely diagnosis, a complete recovery of infected livestock is possible. A sick animal is isolated and complexly treated with antibiotics and antiseptics. A swab from puffs is wiped with hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate. The carbuncles themselves are treated by injection with solutions:
- carboxylic acid (4%);
- Lysola (5%);
- manganese (0.1%);
- hydrogen peroxide (2%).
- amoxicillin (15 mg per 1 kg, 1 time in 2 days, 2 injections);
- biomycin (3-4 mg per 1 kg, 1 time per day, 5 days);
- dibiomycin (40 thousand units per 1 kg, single use);
- penicillin (3-5 thousand per 1 kg, 1 time in 6 hours, until recovery).
An important step in therapy is quarantine. It is carried out according to the instructions.
- First, the barn is sanitized with caustic soda, formaldehyde or lime chloride.
- Healthy animals are vaccinated.
- Next, mechanically clean the areas for walking. Soil in the place where the animal died, is burned, treated with bleach, based on the proportions of 10 liters per 1 square meter, the soil is loosened to a level of at least 25 cm and covered with 25% bleach, after which the ground is watered with water.
- The insulator in which livestock is located is stably disinfected once a day and every time after defecation.
Quarantine is terminated 14 days after the recovery of the last animal. Everything related to dead cattle is burned.
Is it possible to drink milk and eat meat of sick animals
It is strictly forbidden to use milk and meat of sick animals. Fallen as a result of EMCAR animals are burned either immediately or after opening.
Preventive vaccination is carried out after the calves are three months old and up to 4 years old. There are 2 types of vaccines:
- live vaccine (revaccination once a year);
- inactivated vaccine (revaccination 2 times a year).
- calves up to 3 months;
- cows and bulls after 4 years;
- recovered from the livestock.
Did you know? Formol vaccine against EMKAR was invented in the USSR by a microbiologist and doctor of sciences S. N. Muromtsev. In 1959, a concentrated aluminum hydroxide formalinized vaccine was developed under the guidance of A. I. Kolesova and F. Kagan.
Other preventive measures
In addition to vaccination, the following preventive measures must be followed to avoid infection:
- high-quality disposal of bodies, feed and excrement of animals killed by EMKAR is necessary;
- too dry terrain for grazing should be avoided;
- feed and water should not contain foreign particles;
- the premises should be kept clean and periodically disinfected;
- animals should be grazed in safe places, avoiding cattle burial places.