Cattle Validation Instructions
The success of farming depends not only on the feed platform and maintenance rules, but also on the level of selective breeding. The main criteria for evaluating cattle are such parameters as live weight, milk yield, growth rate. Therefore, cowsheds annually evaluate (score) the livestock and display more valuable specimens that will be further used in the breeding direction. But how to perform this work competently, we will tell further.
What is cattle bonuses
By valuation is understood a special assessment of cattle (cattle), which is carried out in order to identify the qualitative significance of animals and their consistency with the breed, exterior, composition, pedigree, the actual weight of each individual and milk yield.As a rule, the procedure is carried out by farmers all year round in the following order:
- for cows - to stop lactation;
- for young animals - 6-10 months after birth;
- for gobies - at the age of mating.
Important! For the most part, the assessment is carried out by farm employees; external experts from scientific bodies are rarely hired.
Before starting bonding cattle, perform the following steps:
- check inventory numbers, identify the presence of fuzzy or lost;
- create the basis of the diet and the environment;
- fill in cards of the established form;
- add together the milk yield of each cows for the previous 305 days;
- perform other preparatory actions.
According to the established standards, cattle are classified as follows:
- elite record (ER);
- elite (E);
- I class (1K);
- II class (2K).
It cannot steadily enter one class: cat grows its entire life and its indicators change annually.Exterior and constitutional indicators KRSK classification carried out by gender and age. The suitability of the cows is calculated on a scale. Separately consider indicators:
- milk production and milk yield rate (maximum indicator - 60 points);
- external parameters;
- development and build (the maximum mark is 24 points);
- genotype (maximum - 16 points).
|Number of points||Class|
|80 and more||Er|
Other parameters are used to classify gobies. They have evaluated pedigree, genesis, external data, constitution, the ability to reproduce offspring and the quality of such calves. The cattle class for balls is similar to cow.When evaluating young animals, specialists take only physique, genotype, live weight, attitude to the breed and possible productivity. The rating grading scale will be different.
|Number of points||Class|
|40 and more||Er|
Important! According to the results of the assessment, animals are sorted into groups: in the thoroughbred core, user group, for sale or fattening.
The main criteria for evaluating herd representatives
A number of factors are distinguished by which an individual in the herd is evaluated:
- genotype and breed;
- quality and volume of milk;
- appearance and build;
- quality factor of offspring;
- the fitness of the udder for milking;
- potential for procreation.
To assess cattle, they consider the main parameters and, having collected all the indicators, accumulate points. After that, the cows are categorized. During the procedure, auxiliary points may be given for the complexion, appearance, genotype and gender.
To assign the meat cattle class, an assessment is made by appearance. Moreover, the parameters are fixed immediately after birth.There are 5 divisions for evaluating young animals. This takes into account the formation of the skeleton, the design of the hooves, joints, sternum, spinal bones. If evaluating adult cows, it takes into account:
- muscle volume;
- the development of the skeleton and skeleton.
To assess the practicality of milk cows, they take the milk yield data for the previous 3 lactations (for first-calf hens - for one, after two calving - for the last 2). In this case, take into account:
- the amount of milk yield;
- its suitability for hardware milking;
- protein concentration in milk.
Important! An additional 16-24 points can be earned for genotype and pedigree.
Consequently, an exhibition of animals for dairy purposes can be represented exclusively by individuals who, according to the results of the assessment, received one hundred points. Superbonuses also occur if milk yield is 140% of the smallest milk yield of cows representing class A.
The average milk fat content is calculated by multiplying the fat concentration over 30 days by the monthly milk yield. All works are summarized and divided into actual milk yield.The milk fat content for the lactation period is calculated by dividing the volume of 1% milk by 100.
The average milk fat content of the cows is calculated by summing the milk yield converted to 1% milk and dividing the resulting number by real milk yield.
The milk yield at 2-3 months of lactation is determined by taking the monitoring indications of milking during the day. In this case, the amount of one-time milk yield and time costs for each milking must be taken into account.
The intensity of milk yield is calculated as the quotient of the amount of milk received and the time spent.
The category of young calves is determined from the age of six months according to a number of signs in accordance with the value of the points received:
- record elite - 40;
- elite - 35–39;
- I class - 30–34;
- Grade II - 25–29.
Did you know? Mini-cows are breeds whose representatives, when they reach three years of age, the height at the withers is not higher than 105 cm. Highland is considered the most productive mini-cow. The breed was bred in Scotland at the end XIX century.
To display the result using such a scale.
|Parameter||Points for gobies||Scores for heifers|
|Genotype (maximum - 30 points)|
|1st knee (1/2)||0||2|
|2nd knee (3/4)||3||3|
|3rd knee (7/8)||5||5|
|4th knee (15/16)||7||7|
|Parent of ER||8||11|
|Father of er||9||11|
|Appearance and typicality (maximum - 10 points). The parameter is calculated by a five-point rating|
|Development (maximum - 10 points). The following parameters are considered here: height at the withers, breadth, depth and volume of the chest, breadth in the maklaki, metacarpus, oblique length of the body.|
|Actual weight 2K (85% of the first)||0||6|
|Live weight 1K||8||8|
|Live weight exceeding class 1 norms by 5 percent or more||10||10|
If the father’s data is derived from the offspring, then such points are assigned (determined only for calves):
- 3rd type — 3;
- 2nd type — 4;
- 1st type - 5.
Important! Little girls originating from mothers who do not meet the standards of class 2 cannot be defined as the elite and 1st grade. And those originating from class 1 cannot be classified as an elite record. The elite record includes heifers who have a purity not lower than the 3rd knee, and the elite - not lower than the 2nd knee.
Bulls-producers are considered according to external data, thoroughbreds and the ability to produce offspring. To calculate what type a bull belongs to, use the following table:
|Parameter||Class||Number of points|
|Structure and appearance||Er||20|
* The genotype includes such indicators (score in points):
- litter quality: ER - 10, E - 8, 1K - 7;
- pedigree: pure breed - 10, IV generation - 8, III generation - 7;
- parent: ER - 5, E - 4, 1K - 3;
- father: ER - 5, E - 4, 1K - 3.
By the type of ER and E are considered manufacturers in whom:
- the actual mass meets the requirements of the 1st class and above;
- pedigree revealed no lower than the 4th knee;
- the constitution and facade gain 85–90 points and above.
Did you know? The leader among cattle breeders is India - for example, 26 varieties of mini-cows are bred there. Hindus consider cows sacred and give them special attention.
As you can see, the appraisal is not an unnecessary measure in farm management. Based on its results, plans are developed for sorting the herd, raising young stock for replacement, and the prospects for breeding work are being clarified.