Black-motley breed of cattle: description, care and feeding
The black-and-white breed of cattle provides excellent annual milk yield - in terms of milk production, it is not inferior to the red steppe and Simmental breeds, which are considered the favorites of Russian cattle breeders. Significant milk yield and unpretentiousness in the care make black-motley cows extremely popular in agriculture and farming.
The black-motley cow was recently bred - in the 1930–40s in the USSR, and was approved as a separate breed only in 1959. The ancestors turned out to be the imported Dutch bulls, which were crossed with locally grown cows.
At first, the first representatives were rather flimsy, with poor health and fragile physique, however, despite these shortcomings, they had high milk productivity. After breeding, the animals became stronger, acquired more developed muscles, good immunity and excellent health.
Adult individuals of black-motley breed have the following exterior characteristics:
|Horns||gray color, darker tips, small size|
|Head||oblong, with elongated muzzle|
|Neck||length is average. Creased, muscularity not developed|
|Chest||average width with a depth of about 70–75 cm|
|Udder||large, voluminous. It looks like a bowl in shape, with unevenly developed lobes. The rear nipples are closer to each other than the front. Veins are pronounced|
|Belly||large and voluminous|
|Back||straight, without deflection in the lumbar region, with a wide sacrum|
|Housing||has an elongated shape proportional to|
|Limbs||strong and straight, steady, short|
|Height at the withers||about 130–135 cm|
|Leather||elastic and thin, delicate|
|Wool||short, smooth, soft|
|Suit||black and white|
Due to their wide distribution, all representatives of this breed are divided into three large groups corresponding to the regions of their mass breeding.Each group is adapted to the climate of its area and differs from other groups in both external features and productivity indicators:
- Central. These cows are bred in the central regions of Russia. The main representatives came from the cross-breeding of black-motley cattle with other breeds: Vologda, Yaroslavl and Simmental. Non-fat milk in this group is about 3.7%, and animals weigh up to 600 kg in females and slightly less than 1000 kg in males.
- Siberian. She was bred after mixing blood of a local Siberian breed and cattle imported from the Netherlands. The resulting individuals differ in small sizes, but their skeleton is strong. The fat content of milk is slightly higher - 3.8%.
- Ural. In this region, black-motley individuals were mixed with Tagil ones. Because of this, the group began to have less weight - about 500 kg for cows and up to 900 kg for bulls, and the skeleton became thinner and lighter. However, the productivity of this subspecies is slightly higher than the other two - higher milk yields and 4% milk fat.
Did you know? The world record for annual milk productivity belongs to the representative of the black-motley breed, which gave 19106 kg of dairy products with a fat content of 4.2% for lactation.
Advantages and disadvantages
- This breed has the following advantages:
- Big milk yield. According to this indicator, black-motley breed is one of the best. The amount of milk received depends on the conditions of detention: on farms and in pedigree farms, with good fattening and proper care, the annual milk yield can exceed 8000 kg, but without careful care and pasture, these cows produce about 3500 kg of milk, which is also very good.
- Good meat yield. Although the breed belongs to the dairy direction, its representatives quickly gain weight, and the bulls grow to 1000 kg. With painstaking care and good feeding, the bulls give a good yield of quality lean meat - about 55%. Not every dairy breed can boast of such indicators.
- Precocity. Black-motley cows reach early maturity - by about a year and a half. However, this often happens earlier - at 13-14 months of life.
- High offspring survival. Cows calve easily and have a well-developed maternal instinct. Cubs are born strong and active, immediately try to get on their feet. Survive in 95% of cases.
- Adaptability to various climatic conditions. A variety of individuals allows you to breed those animals that are most adapted to the weather of your area. They calmly tolerate snow, cold and winds, since many generations have been grown in the northern regions. Such conditions are familiar to them and do not affect the state of health. This cattle is just as successfully acclimatized in the central regions with a mild and warm climate.
- Low content requirements. By providing the animal with only the minimum necessary care, you can already get a sufficient yield of milk. In summer, livestock feeds mainly on pasture.
The disadvantages of the breed include:
- Nonfat milk. Although on the shelves of stores you can often find bottles with milk, the fat content of which does not exceed 4%, nevertheless, for whole cow's milk this indicator is low, since the product may have a 6% fat content.
- Inability to compete with the meat and dairy industry. Although with good fattening, calves can gain up to a ton of live weight, they require special conditions for this, which nevertheless do not guarantee constant successful recruitment. Therefore, a meaty black-and-white goby is more a bonus than a rule. Other breeds of meat orientation are more profitable, as they give a stable and greater meat yield.
- Noticeable differences in species groups within the breed. Although belonging to the black-motley breed is clearly visible in all groups, the differences between them are no less noticeable - from the density of the skeleton, size differences and the amount and fat content of milk.
- Need for a warmed barn. Black-and-white cattle are adapted to live in harsh northern conditions and can tolerate cold, but drafts and high humidity are dangerous for him, like for most other animals.
Maintenance and care
The content of any cattle is reduced to the implementation of a number of points:
- preparation of feed - dry (hay) and succulent (fruits, root crops, silage);
- organization of the feeding process with a difference in summer and winter;
- regular milking process;
- arrangement of the barn in accordance with the needs of the animal;
- cleaning livestock;
- hygienic care for cows and bulls.
The needs of black-motley breed do not differ much from the needs of other breeds.
Summer walking area
In summer, cows need free grazing. Their diet is mainly pasture - juicy, fresh grass. However, if it is not possible to organize livestock grazing, it can be replaced by a summer walking area.
Such a site is most often organized on the south side of a building - this arrangement protects animals from drafts. In addition, its size should be large enough.
So, if the coating is not hard, then at least 15 square meters are required per adult animal. m of free space, young animals - 10 square meters. m, and calves - 5 square meters. m. If the coating is hard, less than one square foot is required: 8 sq. m. m to livestock, 5 sq. m. m young and 2 square. m cubs.The site is fenced, place feeders and drinking bowls on its territory. Necessarily the presence of a large canopy - its function is to protect livestock from heat and direct sunlight. In order not to overheat, the animals will be located under a canopy, which will allow them to maintain good health.
On a walking platform, cows should move freely, keeping on a leash is not recommended. The meaning of such a place is precisely to satisfy the animal's need for movement.
While walking, cows strengthen their legs and hooves - due to this they are less susceptible to injury than in a closed and cramped room. They also increase immunity.
The favorite of the summer content of cattle, of course, is free grazing. In such conditions, animals clean their hooves about plants, are less polluted and eat high-quality, juicy pasture feed.
This allows you to save not only on the purchase of special feed in the summer, but also on other expensive resources, such as cleaning and stall cleaning, as well as procurement and organization of feeding.
Did you know? European dairies pay farmers bonuses for pasture milk. Such milk, collected from cows grazing in grassy meadows, is considered the most useful and high-quality.
Arrangement of a barn
Black-motley cows are sensitive to the environment - they like freedom of movement, poorly tolerate crowding, dirt, high humidity and drafts.Therefore, when building, you need to consider two main points:
- High volume - in such conditions, cows grow better and give greater milk yield.
- Southeast direction - in order to protect animals from drafts, frostbite, cold and humidity, all windows and doors in the barn should face the south or east side.
Also important is the interior arrangement of the barn.
Important! Cows lie for at least 14 hours a day, and the amount of milk depends on the length of the bed. If the floor is hard, wet and cold, then the animal will lie for no more than 6 hours, which will significantly reduce its milk production.
In it, you must certainly equip:
- Stall. This is the main place of pasture of cattle, and it should be spacious enough so that each individual has 2.5 m of free space. The animals are kept on a leash, for this they most often use strong metal chains. At the same time, the chain should not hamper movement, allowing you to move around and reach food and water. It is unacceptable if the leash injures livestock or is difficult to remove.
- Feeder. She needs to equip every stall, designed for one animal. The size of the feeder must be such that at least 6 kg of hay is placed in it. In addition, it is better to make two feeders - one for dry roughage, and the other for succulent feed. The shape should be such that cows can freely get feed from the bottom. The material for manufacturing is wood (used indoors) and metal (most often they are made on pastures).
- Drinking bowl. Each cow must have access to a drinking bowl, so they must also be kept in each stall. The shape and size requirements are the same as for feeders. The ideal option is an automatic drinking bowl. It will provide the animals with a constant supply of fresh water and save owners time on its replacement.
- Litter. The barn floor is always lined with litter - it makes the cover soft so that the cattle is comfortable lying down, and also absorbs excrement and smells. With regular replacement, the pollution of the room is significantly reduced. The litter is most often made from straw, sometimes from peat, but it is best to use both materials in a ratio of 2 to 1. The volume of litter is calculated based on the fact that each animal needs at least 3 kg daily.
Conditions of detention
In order for the animals to develop well and produce large milk yields, their content must meet the basic requirements:
- Temperature. Black-motley cows tolerate both cold and heat. However, with a long stay in the stable, the stability of the temperature regime is important to them. In winter, the optimum temperature will be from +5 to + 12 ° C. In summer, these figures should ideally rise only to + 20 ° C.
- Ventilation. High humidity (over 70%), the accumulation of excess gases and the presence of drafts are fatal to livestock. Therefore, the room should be well ventilated daily. The best option is to equip the ventilation system of the supply and exhaust type.
- Lighting. Burenki need a long daylight hours - at least 16 hours. Therefore, in the barn, spacious and tall windows are made, facing the southeast direction. They should be placed so high that the cows could not reach their horns. In winter, daylight hours are extended by artificial lamp lighting. You can use ordinary incandescent or emergency lights, but they tend to heat up, which increases the temperature in the room. To avoid this and significantly save on constant lighting, it is best to use LED lights.
Regular cleaning in the barn is a prerequisite for maintaining livestock health. This is necessary not only for reasons of maintaining cleanliness and combating pathogenic bacteria; Another good reason is that, together with the excrement, cows emit carbon dioxide and ammonia.
If these substances accumulate in large quantities in the room, this concentration becomes toxic to animals. When maintaining cleanliness in the crib, you must adhere to these rules:
- Excrement Harvesting. Usually, to simplify the cleaning process, the stall is equipped so that at its end there is a gutter in the floor, about 30 cm wide and with an inclination to one of the walls. Excrement will flow to the place of discharge, from where it will be easier to clean them with a shovel. Such a procedure should be carried out every day.
- Litter Replacement. The litter absorbs the contents of fecal matter and urine, so its replacement should be daily. Spoiled litter is collected and replaced with fresh.
- Cleaning feeders and drinking bowls. In the remnants of water and food, bacteria multiply, food rots. If you do not remove the remnants of the old food, and fill in a new portion from above, then bacteria and putrefactive processes will spread to fresh food, after which they will enter the body of the cow and can cause gastrointestinal tract diseases.
- Sanitary day. Ideally, a full barn cleaning is recommended once every couple of months. Animals are taken out of the room, manure and bedding are completely cleaned, feeders, drinking bowls, stalls, handrails, floor and walls are thoroughly washed (often the livelihoods of livestock are sprayed and fall on the walls). After complete cleaning with water, disinfect all surfaces of the room. For disinfection, materials such as quicklime or soda ash are quite suitable.
Did you know? The capacity of the cow’s stomach is amazing — it can reach almost 200 liters!
If you do not adhere to hygiene norms and rules when milking, bacteria can get not only into milk. Microbes through the milk duct in the nipple are able to penetrate the mammary gland and cause inflammation, which ultimately leads to the development of mastitis - a dangerous disease, often fatal to the animal. Milking preparations include the following steps:
- Room preparation. It must be ensured that the room is clean, with good ventilation, without excrement. If the litter under the cow has become contaminated, it must be removed.
- Cow preparation. Usually, the milking process is carried out when the cow is on a leash. It is necessary to bind it, as it can suddenly go when you are under it. As a result, injuries and an inverted can with milk. Also, if the animal likes to kick, you can snap one of the legs.It is also advisable to tie the tail of the animal to one leg, as it cuts the insect from the burenka - with this wave it can hit you, or this will cause dirt and wool to get into the milk container. The tail can be tied to the leg with a soft thin rope, or with the strands of hair on the brush.
- Milkmaid preparation. Before milking, be sure to thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water, put on clean clothes, the presence of an apron will be a plus. Hair needs to be collected and hidden under a hat so that they do not get into milk. Hands must be warm, otherwise the animal will be frightened by a cold touch and may not allow to milk itself. All these requirements apply not only to manual milking, but also automatic. In both cases, sterilization of the milk tank is necessary, and in the latter case, sterilization of the milking machine is also added.
- Udder preparation. Before milking, you must first wipe the entire area of the mammary gland with a dry, clean cloth - it will remove dry dirt, dust and loose hair. Then the udder and nipples are washed with warm boiled water. Water temperature should be 38–39 ° С. After washing, the udder is wiped dry with a clean cloth.
- Breast massage. After carrying out hygienic manipulations with the udder, it should be lightly massaged for 30-60 seconds. It is not necessary to press and crush the iron, it is enough to gently stroke your hands all the shares of the udder. This massage evenly distributes milk throughout the gland, stimulates lactation, facilitates the process of milk separation and milking, and also helps to increase milk yield.
Feeding of black-motley cows, like most cattle species, varies in winter and summer.
Livestock pasture and feeding in the summer
The main part of the livestock diet in summer is pasture grass. Cows leave for free pasture in the early morning, return for lunch milking and rest, after which they again go to pasture until evening. Therefore, the main daily diet is fresh meadow grass.
The choice of pasture must be approached responsibly, since the taste of grass affects the taste of milk and can give it bitterness. Plants also affect the fat content of the resulting product.
Important! A cow in a pasture indiscriminately absorbs all grass that has fallen under its feet, and therefore can eat a poisonous plant!
Before you bring animals to the meadow, you need to carefully choose a place for their grazing - there should not be poisonous plants, the place should also be dry.
In a humid environment, a large number of mollusks accumulate, which the cow eats with grass, and these organisms are an intermediate host for many helminths, through which worms become infected with cows.
The best grass for cattle are these plants:
- meadow bluegrass;
The transition to a pasture diet should occur gradually in order to allow the digestive tract of animals to be rearranged to digest new food. Therefore, in the early days, cattle are released for grazing for only a couple of hours in the morning and at the same time in the evening.
Grazing time is gradually increasing. And at night the animals are given dried grass - it facilitates the digestive processes.
Adult livestock require about 50 kg of grass per day. Of these, dried grass mass is given to cows no more than 5 kg. The remaining 45 kg are fresh meadow plants.
In addition to green food, in the summer, cows also need root crops.
It can be:
With pleasure, cows eat a mixture of bran, chopped potatoes, salt and water.
Important! In the summer, pasture walking satisfies the daily requirement of livestock for nutrients by 80%. The remaining 20% of the animals are obtained from vegetables and root crops. Therefore, concentrated feed for the summer period should be completely excluded from the diet.
Differences in winter feeding
Grazing is not possible in winter, so fresh grass is replaced with roughage:
In addition, black-motley cows are given:
- concentrated feeds - cereals, legumes, sprats and meal;
- juicy feed - root crops, silage, vegetables.
When calculating the number of products in the winter diet, you need to proceed from such indicators per animal:
- from 50% to 80% of the daily diet should be roughage;
- 30% - concentrates;
- 20% - silage and haylage;
- from 10% to 15% - root crops.
Milking cows with high productivity more than others need vitamin and mineral supplements, so they need to be given vitamin complexes. It is also necessary to provide the cows with salt.
Water is the basis of the diet of cattle - it makes up more than 80% of the composition of milk, the production of 1 kg of which requires about 5 liters of water. With a lack of water, milk yield will be significantly reduced. Calculate the daily requirement of a cow for water is necessary based on the following factors:
- The predominance of dry and succulent feed. The more dry food, the less water they contain - you need to make up the volume of liquid through drinking.
- Temperature mode. In summer, the need for water increases due to heat; when the temperature rises above 27 ° C, 6–8 l of water is required for the formation of 1 kg of milk.
- Milk yield. From the amount of milk that is formed in the cow, depends on its need for fluid. So, a heifer, giving about 10 kg of milk, needs about 50–70 liters of water per day. A highly milk-producing boleta, producing over 30 kg of dairy products, needs at least 150 liters of water.
When a cow is in the stall, she should always have free access to the drinker. In summer, the water in it is changed once every two days, and in winter - twice a day. It is necessary to ensure that the liquid is always fresh, clean and not too cold. Ideally, if the water temperature is approximately equal to the body temperature of the animal.
The lack of fluid in the body of a cow can be determined by the following signs:
- decrease in the amount of milk;
- rare urination;
- the formation of solid feces;
- restless behavior.
Did you know? Cows are supposed to be — culprits of the greenhouse effect. It turns out that during the digestion of grass, these animals emit methane as a product of their vital functions. Moreover, the amount of harmful gas emitted by cattle exceeds the volume of methane, which is produced by cars and aircraft.
The black-and-white breed of cows is one of the favorites of the modern farm animal husbandry. It gives large milk yields, grows and develops quickly, has good immunity and good health, and also easily acclimates to any weather conditions, which makes it possible to keep these animals even in harsh northern regions.