Cow of the Yaroslavl breed: description, care and feeding
The breed of Yaroslavl cows is one of the oldest in Russia, where for many years it has been valued for its highest milk productivity and fatty nutrient yields. In our article, we will consider a detailed description of these animals and find out all the nuances of their content, nutrition and walking.
The Yaroslavl breed of cows was bred in the 19th century in the Yaroslavl province through livestock breeding to improve the quality of pedigree cattle. In those days, these animals were common in the floodplains of the Volga, Mologa and Sheksna rivers.The initial selection result was significantly different from what is found everywhere today - these were medium-sized cows with a fragile bony system. Over the years, by the beginning of the twentieth century, the breed has improved as much as possible, having survived successful crossbreeding with the best types of bulls - Dutch, Kholmogorsky and Swedish. Yaroslavl cows received official recognition in 1933.
Did you know? The first mention of a cow as a pet appeared in the VIII century. BC e. The total mass of all cows living on Earth is almost 3 times the weight of all people.
Yaroslavl cows were originally bred for the purpose of plentiful dairy production, therefore, the characteristics of the breed have pronounced signs of a lactational orientation.
The main parameters of the breed:
|Female growth (at the withers)||120 cm|
|Bull height||127 cm|
|Housing||Strong, deep and stretched (155 cm)|
|Chest||Narrow and deep (35–37 cm)|
|Neck||Elongated, covered with small folds|
|Adult Cow Weight||600 kg|
|Adult Bull Weight||900 kg|
|Manufacturing bull||About 1200 kg|
|Cow udder||Well developed, cup-shaped. Cylindrical nipples|
|Suit||All animals are predominantly black with a white belly, head and legs. There is a nasal mirror and markings around the eyes (“glasses”).|
Advantages and disadvantages
- The main advantages of the variety:
- animals quickly adapt to any climatic features of different areas;
- unpretentious to the diet;
- calving takes place without complications, as a result, an individual gives birth to 1 or 2 calves per year;
- strong immunity of individuals allows to resist diseases characteristic of cattle;
- large yields with a high fat content even with a minimal amount of feed.
- The disadvantages of the breed:
- unprofitable to keep for meat (narrow sternum, short stature);
- cows have weakened limbs (high risk of injury on uneven surfaces);
- after calving, the individual falls on its forepaws and cannot rise for some time.
Maintenance and care
As noted above, the maintenance of Yaroslavl cows does not bring much trouble. Animals are calm, easily perceive lightweight care and tolerate adaptation to any home. Despite this, some recommendations for creating a comfortable existence and care are still better to adhere to.
Summer walking area
Representatives of the Yaroslavl breed tolerate high air temperatures well, but the open sun can be fatal for them - the animals will become lethargic, get sick, and the quantity and quality of milk will decline. That is why, not far from the main barn, the farmer should organize a special walking platform that protects as much as possible from the scorching summer sun. The main indicators of a good site:
- free and spacious territory;
- dense green vegetation, providing both additional food and fresh shelter from the heat;
- the presence of a roof consisting of flooring or tiles;
- strong fence.
Arrangement of a barn
The standard size of the shed for the Yaroslavl cow is 6 x 4 m. The cow itself should occupy half of the free space, 1 part of the second half should be a calf stall, inventory should be placed in 2 parts and feed should be stored.
Important! The litter in the barn should always be dry: otherwise the animal will not lie on the floor, which will result in poor milk yield, and, in some cases, damage to the udder by pathogenic bacteria.
- The height of the room must be at least 2.5 m.
- Before settling an individual in a barn, it is necessary to organize high-quality thermal insulation.
- The flooring can be made of wood (it is warm and comfortable), but after only 3-4 years this material comes into complete disrepair, therefore it is better to make the floors brick or concrete.
- Flooring options - straw or a mix of straw and peat (2: 1). The recommended layer is 20 cm.
- Indoor windows should be taller than cows.
- The optimal size of the stall is 2.5–3 square meters. m;
- Permissible material for feeders and drinking bowls is steel, cast iron, wood. Size - 100 x 80 cm. The volume of the drinking bowl for a boobenka with a milk slope is 90–120 l.
Conditions of detention
The following rules should not be neglected:
- the air temperature in the barn should not be below +10 ° C and above +25 ° C;
- permissible humidity - 50–75%;
- Lighting should be bright to keep the cows in an active rhythm. Scheme of light duration: 16 hours - daylight hours, 8 hours - full night. In winter time, the beginning and end of lighting should fall at half past four in the morning and half past eight in the evening;
- ventilation should be organized in such a way that the air in the room is not stale, but drafts are strictly not allowed;
- It is extremely important not to forget about the timely cleaning and disinfection of the cow's dwelling.
Important! If there are cracks or any wounds on the hands, the farmer should wear sterile rubber gloves.
So that the Yaroslavl cows feel as comfortable as possible, give high-quality milk yield and are not exposed to diseases, it is necessary to clean the cowshed regularly and carefully:
- daily clean the feeders and drinking bowls from adhering food and dirt, rinsing once a week with boiling water;
- regularly inspect and clean the ventilation outlets (2-3 times a week);
- daily clean the floor from manure;
- replacing the flooring as it becomes dirty - the main thing is that the room does not accumulate sharp smells of urine and excrement, and the cow's limbs are dry and warm.
The beginning of preparation for productive milking is the cleaning of the room. After carrying out all necessary hygiene measures, the farmer must carefully clean the cow itself, having previously tied the tail to her leg. Immediately before the process, the owner of the animal should wash his hands thoroughly and put on clean clothes.
The following rules should also be observed:
- Gently wash the cow's udder with warm water and wipe dry with a towel.
- Massage alternately each half of the udder, kneading from the base to the nipples and returning. Pre-massage has a beneficial effect not only on the result of milk yield, but also prevents the occurrence of stagnant, inflammatory processes in the dairy organ.
- When milking, it is advisable for the farmer to sit on his right, sitting on a low stool. In the process, press the container with your feet.
What to feed
The Yaroslavl diet should be taken seriously. Food in winter and summer have some important differences.
Livestock pasture and feeding in the summer
In summer, cows feed mainly on pastures, where they receive almost the entire vitamin-mineral health complex. Green natural food makes up 80% of the summer diet, but does not fully cover the needs of animals. Therefore, their menu should be complemented by juicy complementary foods - potatoes, beets, etc.
Choosing a pasture for walking the Yaroslavl cows follows from the following calculation: on one head not less than 0.5 hectares, the distance from the farm is 2-3 km. It is desirable that near the walking area there is a natural source of water (within a radius of 1-2 km).
Differences in winter feeding
In winter, it is necessary to gradually introduce additional nutritious feeding into the diet of livestock:
- straw and hay;
- bone flour;
- cake, meal;
- fodder pumpkin, beets, potatoes, root crops;
- compound feed, concentrates;
Did you know? One cow in a lifetime gives approximately 200 thousand glasses of milk. And one herd of 50 goals per day can produce almost a ton of a delicious product.
In the cold season, a strict feeding regimen is established - 3 times a day, always at the same time, at regular intervals.
Animals should be fed with clean water at room temperature (+ 10-15 ° C). In summer, cows quench their thirst from natural reservoirs, but this does not exclude the additional amount of liquid in shed drinkers. Water should always be in the public domain. In winter, the cow drinks indoors, so it is extremely important not to forget to timely replace the water with fresh water, and also to ensure that the drinkers are not contaminated with food debris or straw.The Yaroslavl breed of cows is not without reason appreciated by domestic and foreign farmers for many years. With conscientious care and plentiful feeding, these animals will generously enrich their master with delicious and high-quality milk.